Are Axis IV Criteria Predictive of Future Depressive Episodes?: According to the DSM-IV, psychosocial stressors and environmental stressors that have occurred in the prior 12 months of someone?s life may be predictive of future depressive episodes in individuals with major depression (MDE).
This is covered in what is called the Axis-IV section of the DSM-IV. When clinicians use this method to assess symptoms, they can also report any events that may be relevant to MDE, even if they did not occur in the 12 months prior to assessment. These may include childhood maltreatment such as sexual abuse, neglect, or other forms of adversity. But until now, few studies have looked specifically at these factors and measured their predictive value in a longitudinal follow-up format.